When can I upgrade to Windows 10?


Windows 10
When can I upgrade to Windows 10?

From Microsoft

We want to give every customer a great upgrade experience, so we’re rolling it out in an organized way to manage high demand and to make sure that the upgrade is right for your device. After July 29, when Windows 10 is ready for your device, it will download in the background. You’ll then get a notification to schedule your upgrade right away or at another time that’s convenient for you.

Here are some common questions about the upgrade process. Click on the links for answers.

How long does it take to install the upgrade?
What if I have more than one Windows device – can I upgrade them all?
What edition of Windows will I get as part of this free upgrade?
Will my PC or tablet be compatible with Windows 10?


Coq au Vin Recipe


  • 4 Chicken thighs on the bone (skin removed)
  • 4 Chicken drumsticks on the bone (skin removed)
  • 10 Shallots (peeled but whole not chopped)
  • 5 Garlic Cloves (peeled but not chopped)
  • 1 bottle of a good quality Cotes du Rhone Red Wine
  • 750 ml of good quality chicken stock
  • 500g Lardons
  • 225g Baby Button Chestnut Mushrooms (whole)
  • Olive Oil
  • Sprig Thyme
  • Sprig Rosemary
  • 2 Bay Leaves
  • 3-4 tsps of cornflour


  1. In a thick bottomed casserole on top of the stove line the bottom with olive oil
  2. add the shallots and garlic and lardons fry until starting to just brown
  3. add the chicken pieces (no skins)
  4. fry until just starting to colour so no pink showing
  5. add mushrooms (whole)
  6. add chicken stock
  7. add whole bottle of wine
  8. add thyme
  9. add rosemary
  10. add bay leaves
  11. bring to boil
  12. simmer for 50 mins stirring from time to time.
  13. Taste for seasoning but I find it doesn’t need any salt as the lardons usually are salty enough. Add a small amount of salt if you think it needs it.
  14. in a cup mix 3-4 heaped teaspoons of cornflour with some cold water to a paste
  15. when throughly mixed pour into casserole and stir throughly so the sauce thickens up
  16. cook for a further 10 minutes
  17. Serve with Green Beans and Mashed Potato.
  18. Can be cooked the night before and then thoroughly reheated the next day for even more flavour.


A delicious non-bake cake

Tiffin (this recipe is so old everything is measured in ounces)

  • 8oz digestive biscuits
  • 4oz butter
  • 3 level tablespoons golden syrup
  • 1oz drinking chocolate
  • 6oz cooking chocolate to top (but I always use more)
  • raisins – as many as you like


  1. Line a 7”x8”x1” baking tin with greaseproof paper.
  2. Crush biscuits, add drinking chocolate and raisins.
  3. Melt the butter and syrup in a pan and pour over the biscuits. Mix well then place in tin and press down.
  4. Leave in fridge for about an hour.
  5. Melt cooking chocolate in a bowl over a pan of boiling water. Pour over the mixture evenly.
  6. When set pull the tiffin out using the paper and cut to required size.

Thanks to Karen Bain for this recipe

Flat White vs Latte

Flat White vs Latte

A flat white is not just a small latte. They are very different drinks. If you’re caught in a cafe that doesn’t serve a flat white, then a small latte might be a passable substitute, but they’re not the same drink. The flat white vs latte debate is common in the UK and USA where the Flat White is still new.

Flat White and Latte

I drink flat whites and my girlfriend drinks lattes so I’ve seen the difference between the two drinks in cafes across England, France, Spain, Denmark, USA, New Zealand and Australia. I’ve had a lot of discussions with baristas and it’s time to shine some light on the common debate about “What is a flat white?

How can a small latte, a flat white and a small cappuccino all use the same shot of espresso and be served in the same cup but still be different drinks?

How much coffee is there in your coffee?

We can hold the preparation of the espresso as a constant. You can have a double shot or a single shot in a flat white or in a latte. Some people would say that a single shot flat white isn’t really a flat white, but that’s a bit too purist and there are plenty of cafes in New Zealand and Australia that do serve singles.

It’s not the size of the cup, it’s what you do with it

In most cafes, a flat white is smaller than a latte. But that doesn’t mean that a flat white is a small latte. It’s a bit like saying that a shed is just a smaller house. Sure, most sheds are smaller than most houses, but size isn’t the decisive factor. If a barista has been un-trained (or over-trained) then they may think that size is the only difference between a flat white and a latte. I like asking those baristas what the difference is between a cappuccino vs a latte because they have to fall back on the real differences (beyond just size).

Milk is the forgotten ingredient in a latte

If we hold the espresso as a constant, then what makes a flat white versus a latte or a flat white versus a cappuccino is the milk. Milk is the hidden ingredient in a modern coffee. Most people forget how important milk is to a good coffee. When milk is frothed with a steam wand there are three layers that form:

  • Heated liquid milk at the bottom of the pitcher
  • Velvet microfoam in the middle of the pitcher (these are very small bubbles)
  • Stiff froth (these are larger bubbles)

The important process of “stretching” the milk by frothing, folding and swirling it is done to maximise the amount of velvet microfoam by blending the large bubbles and the liquid milk. Without swirling and tapping there would still have some microfoam but you’d never know it in the cup because it would be lost in the liquid and/or the froth.

Flat White Milk at Flat White Cafe

The art of frothing milk is to keep the steam wand at the surface of the milk (that pleasing steamy sound you hear in busy cafes). Most baristas learn to froth milk pretty fast because it’s obvious when it works or doesn’t. The main differences between drinks and between baristas arise when the steaming is finished and it’s time to pour the drink. – A good barista will swirl the steamed milk around to fold the froth back into the liquid and create a seamless pitcher of velvet microfoam. Some might tap the pitcher on the counter to pop the worst of the big bubbles on top (as part of folding the milk). But this is unnecessary if you’re swirling the milk smoothly enough.


Crema is the orange caramelised coffee that floats to the top of an espresso. It tastes sweeter than the dark coffee part but it’s very vulnerable and can be destroyed by sitting too long or being drowned in milk. A cappuccino sacrifices the crema under the weight of the stiff froth and a latte can kill the crema with milk. One of the main ways of telling if you have been served a good flat white is how much of the milk has merged with the crema to form an even dusky orange swirl. This coloration of the milk is the starting point of latte art.

How to make a flat white different to a latte

An excellent barista can “free pour” straight from the pitcher using speed of the pour and the tilt of the jug to choose how much froth, foam or liquid to pour into any given drink. A mid-level barista is more likely to do it like this:

  • Cappuccino: spoon the stiff froth into the cup and then top up with a pour from the jug.
  • Latte: Pour the liquid milk from the jug with a spoon to hold back the froth and then top off with a dollop of froth.
  • Flat white: Free pour for a mix of froth and liquid.

Like any human endeavour, there is a bell curve to the skills of baristas. The most ignorant of baristas will make a flat white, latte or a cappuccino all the same. After all, they’re just a “milky coffee”. Ironically, some very high end baristas have the same attitude because they take so much care with frothing, folding and pouring their milk that every coffee is made like a perfect flat white with an even mix of liquid, microfoam and froth.

Latte and Flat White

The net effect of this variety of approaches to the milk is that the drinks will feel different in the mouth and may taste different because of the dilution of the coffee with liquid. In terms of mood and mouthfeel:

  • Cappuccino has stiff foam and feels like drinking bubbles with a bed of coffee hidden at the bottom.
  • Latte is milky, has a little foam on the top and feels like drinking a milky coffee.
  • Flat White has an even mix of liquid milk and smooth velvet foam so it feels like drinking an espresso, only yummier.

The best way to test the flat white vs latte would seem to be to go to a small independent cafe and order a cappuccino, a latte and a flat white. But the goal of ordering a coffee isn’t really to compare a static reality, it’s to express to the barista your intention and desires. So order based on what you’d enjoy: a frothy treat, a milky warm sensation or a short sharp shot of coffee that goes down easy.

Road tax changes: how DVLA’s new system will work without tax discs

The long-serving paper tax disc is set to vanish as the road tax system goes digital

Tomorrow drivers can tear up their tax discs as a new road tax system replaces the tried and tested perforated paper circle. Instead, an electronic road tax database will keep track of who has paid – and those who don’t face a fine of £1,000.

Although the change has long been in the pipeline, a recent survey found that more than half the country had no idea about the new road tax system. Here’s everything you need to know about it:

What is going to change?
From next month, motorists will no longer receive a paper tax disc to fix to their windscreen, and will instead be asked to pay their road tax online, via the DVLA website. Drivers without access to the internet will be able to pay at post offices. In Northern Ireland, drivers will still need to display their MoT discs, but not their tax discs.

What happens if my road tax doesn’t expire for several months?
You don’t have to do anything, although you can take your paper tax disc off your car windscreen if you want to. Your existing road tax will remain valid until its expiry date, at which point you can renew it using the new system.

What about classic cars and other tax-exempt vehicles?
Owners of cars which are exempt from vehicle excise duty will not have to pay anything, but they will still need to register each year on the DVLA website.

How will the authorities enforce the new road tax system?
Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) cameras, which track all cars, will catch those who haven’t paid up. The police can look up registration numbers on the Police National Computer system. Offenders will face fines of up to £1,000.

Does this effect the buying and selling of used cars?
Yes, this is where the changes will be felt most keenly. From October, vehicle tax will no longer be transferred with the vehicle. This means the buyer will not benefit if there are unused months left on the tax disc. They will have to renew the tax straight away.

The seller can claim a refund from DVLA for any full calendar months left on the vehicle’s tax. However, they are also responsible for informing the DVLA of the change of ownership and will face a fine if they do not do so.

Are there any other disadvantages?
The new system could make it easier for car thieves to operate undected, says The Sunday Times. “Without the need for a tax disc with the correct registration number, it will be simpler for crooks to disguise stolen cars using a set of fabricated numberplates that have been copied from a properly taxed vehicle of the same make, model and colour,” the paper says. The ANPR cameras will not be able to tell the difference between the legitimate car and its ringer.

What about driving abroad?
Most European countries require some form of tax disc or sticker on the windscreen and some motorists have expressed fears that foreign police might look askance at vehicles not displaying any tax documentation. The British government says that the European authorities have been told about the changes. “DVLA have informed the European Union that from 1 October 2014, UK registered vehicles that are travelling in the EU will not display tax discs,” it says.

How can I check if my vehicle is taxed correctly?
You can look up the tax status of any vehicle by using DVLA’s Vehicle Enquiry System. Click here

You will still be sent a renewal reminder when your vehicle tax is due to expire.

How much of a problem is road tax evasion?
It’s relatively small, figures suggest. The latest estimate of vehicle excise duty evasion is just 0.6 per cent, although that amounts to about 200,000 cars.

So why is the system changing?
The DVLA says the reforms are aiming to streamline the service and to save British businesses millions of pounds a year in administrative bills.

Is there any benefit to the average motorist?
Insurance premiums may fall as a result. Julie Daniels, head of motor at comparethemarket.com, tells the Daily Telegraph that the removal of the tax disc, and resultant elimination of tax dodgers from the road, “should have a positive impact on premiums”.

Over 21

I went to my local B&Q today to buy some white spirit (to clean paint brushes) and I used the self service checkout, the till said I needed to seek assistance.  The sales assistant asked me if I was over 21, I said ‘what do you think, I refuse to answer that question’.  I’m 45 ffs and do I look like the kind of person who drinks white spirit? I struggle with house gin.



Jack the Ripper unmasked using DNA

Today the Daily Mail run the story below:


How amateur sleuth used DNA breakthrough to identify Britain’s most notorious criminal 126 years after string of terrible murders


  • DNA evidence on a shawl found at Ripper murder scene nails killer
  • By testing descendants of victim and suspect, identifications were made
  • Jack the Ripper has been identified as Polish-born Aaron Kosminski
  • Kosminski was a suspect when the Ripper murders took place in 1888
  • Hairdresser Kosminski lived in Whitechapel and was later put in an asylum

It is the greatest murder mystery of all time, a puzzle that has perplexed criminologists for more than a century and spawned books, films and myriad theories ranging from the plausible to the utterly bizarre.

But now, thanks to modern forensic science, The Mail on Sunday can exclusively reveal the true identity of Jack the Ripper, the serial killer responsible for  at least five grisly murders in Whitechapel in East London during the autumn of 1888.

DNA evidence has now  shown beyond reasonable doubt which one of six key suspects commonly cited in connection with the Ripper’s reign of terror was the actual killer – and we reveal his identity.

A shawl found by the body of Catherine Eddowes, one of the Ripper’s victims, has been analysed and found to contain DNA from her blood as well as DNA from the killer.

The landmark discovery was made after businessman Russell Edwards, 48, bought the shawl at auction and enlisted the help of Dr Jari Louhelainen, a world-renowned expert in analysing genetic evidence from historical crime scenes.

Using cutting-edge techniques, Dr Louhelainen was able to extract 126-year-old DNA from the material and compare it to DNA from descendants of Eddowes and the suspect, with both proving a perfect match.

The revelation puts an end to the fevered speculation over the Ripper’s identity which has lasted since his murderous rampage in the most impoverished and dangerous streets of London.

In the intervening century, a Jack the Ripper industry has grown up, prompting a dizzying array of more than 100 suspects, including Queen Victoria’s grandson – Prince Albert Victor, the Duke of Clarence – the post-Impressionist painter Walter Sickert, and the former Liberal Prime Minister William Gladstone.

It was March 2007, in an  auction house in Bury St Edmunds, that I first saw the blood-soaked shawl. It was  in two surprisingly large  sections – the first measuring 73.5in by 25.5in, the second 24in by 19in – and, despite its stains, far prettier than any artefact connected to Jack the Ripper might be expected to be. It was mostly blue and dark brown, with a delicate  pattern of Michaelmas daisies – red, ochre and gold – at either end.

It was said to have been found next to the body of one of the Ripper’s victims, Catherine Eddowes, and soaked in her blood. There was no evidence for its provenance, although after the auction I obtained a letter from its previous owner who claimed his ancestor had been a police officer present at the murder scene and had taken it from there.

Yet I knew I wanted to buy the shawl and was prepared to pay a great deal of money for it. I hoped somehow to prove that it was genuine. Beyond that, I hadn’t considered the possibilities. I certainly had no idea that this flimsy, badly stained, and incomplete piece of material would lead to the solution to the most famous murder mystery of all time: the identification of Jack the Ripper.

Gruesome: A contemporary engraving of a Jack the Ripper crime scene in London's Whitechapel

Gruesome: A contemporary engraving of a Jack the Ripper crime scene in London’s Whitechapel

When my involvement in the 126-year-old case began, I was just another armchair detective, interested enough to conduct my own extensive research after watching the Johnny Depp film From Hell in 2001. It piqued my curiosity about the 1888 killings when five – possibly more – prostitutes were butchered in London’s East End.

Despite massive efforts by the police, the perpetrator evaded capture, spawning the mystery which has fuelled countless books, films, TV programmes and tours of Whitechapel. Theories about his identity have been virtually limitless, with everyone from Prince Albert Victor, the Duke of Clarence, to Lewis Carroll being named as possible suspects. As time has passed, the name Jack the Ripper has become synonymous with the devil himself; his crimes setting the gruesome standard against which other horrific murders are judged.

I joined the armies of those fascinated by the mystery and researching the Ripper became a hobby. I visited the National Archives in Kew to view as much of the original paperwork as still exists, noting how many of the authors of books speculating about the Ripper had not bothered to do this. I was convinced that there must be something, somewhere that had been missed.

By 2007, I felt I had exhausted all avenues until I read a newspaper article about the sale of a shawl connected to the Ripper case. Its owner, David Melville-Hayes, believed it had been in his family’s possession since the murder of Catherine Eddowes, when his ancestor, Acting Sergeant Amos Simpson, asked his superiors if he could take it home to give to his wife, a dressmaker.

Incredibly, it was stowed without ever being washed, and was handed down from David’s great-grandmother, Mary Simpson, to his grandmother, Eliza Smith, and then his mother, Eliza Mills, later Hayes.

In 1991, David gave it to Scotland Yard’s Crime Museum, where it was placed in storage rather than on display because of the lack of proof of its provenance. In 2001, David reclaimed it, and it was exhibited at the annual Jack the Ripper conference. One forensic test was carried out on it for a Channel 5 documentary in 2006, using a simple cotton swab from a randomly chosen part of the shawl, but it was inconclusive.

Most Ripper experts dismissed it when it came up for auction, but I believed I had hit on something no one else had noticed which linked it to the Ripper. The shawl is patterned with Michaelmas daisies. Today the Christian feast of Michaelmas is archaic, but in Victorian times it was familiar as a quarter day, when rents and debts were due.

I discovered there were two dates for it: one, September 29, in the Western Christian church and the other, November 8, in the Eastern Orthodox church. With a jolt, I realised the two dates coincided precisely with the nights of the last two murder dates. September 29 was the night on which Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes were killed, and November 8 was the night of the final, most horrific of the murders, that of Mary Jane Kelly.

Found at the scene: Russel Edwards holds the shawl he bought in 2007, allegedly handed down from a policeman who took it from the scene, which had the incriminating DNA on it


Found at the scene: Russel Edwards holds the shawl he bought in 2007, allegedly handed down from a policeman who took it from the scene, which had the incriminating DNA on it

I reasoned that it made no sense for Eddowes to have owned the expensive shawl herself; this was a woman so poor she had pawned her shoes the day before her murder. But could the Ripper have brought the shawl with him and left it as an obscure clue about when he was planning to strike next? It was just a hunch, and far from proof of anything, but it set me off on my journey.

Before buying it, I spoke to Alan McCormack, the officer in charge of the Crime Museum, also known as the Black Museum. He told me the police had always believed they knew the identity of the Ripper. Chief Inspector Donald Swanson, the officer in charge of the investigation, had named him in his notes: Aaron Kosminski, a Polish Jew who had fled to London with his family, escaping the Russian pogroms, in the early 1880s.

Kosminski has always been one of the three most credible suspects. He is often described as having been a hairdresser in Whitechapel, the occupation written on his admission papers to the workhouse in 1890. What is certain is he was seriously mentally ill, probably a paranoid schizophrenic who suffered auditory hallucinations and described as a misogynist prone to ‘self-abuse’ – a euphemism for masturbation.

McCormack said police did not have enough evidence to convict Kosminski, despite identification by a witness, but kept him under 24-hour surveillance until he was committed to mental asylums for the rest of his life. I became convinced Kosminski was our man, and I was excited at the prospect of proving it. I felt sure that modern science would be able to produce real evidence from the stains on the shawl. After  a few false starts, I found a scientist I hoped could help.

Dr Jari Louhelainen is a leading expert in genetic evidence from historical crime scenes, combining his day job as senior lecturer in molecular biology at Liverpool John Moores University with working on cold cases for Interpol and other projects. He agreed to conduct tests on the shawl in his spare time.

The tests began in 2011, when Jari used special photographic analysis to establish what the stains were.

Using an infrared camera, he was able to tell me the dark stains were not just blood, but consistent with arterial blood spatter caused by slashing – exactly the grim death Catherine Eddowes had met.

But the next revelation was the most heart-stopping. Under UV photography, a set of fluorescent stains showed up which Jari said had the characteristics of semen. I’d never expected to find evidence of the Ripper himself, so this was thrilling, although Jari cautioned me that more testing was required before any conclusions could be drawn.

Obsession: Russell Edwards points to Hambury Street where one of the murders took place

Obsession: Russell Edwards points to Hanbury Street where one of the murders took place

He also found evidence of split body parts during the frenzied attack. One of Eddowes’ kidneys was removed by her murderer, and later in his research Jari managed to identify the presence of what he believed to be a kidney cell.

It was impossible to extract DNA from the stains on the shawl using the method employed in current cases, in which swabs are taken. The samples were just too old.

Instead, he used a method he called ‘vacuuming’, using a pipette filled with a special ‘buffering’ liquid that removed the genetic material in the cloth without damaging it.

As a non-scientist, I found myself in a new world as Jari warned that it would also be impossible to use genomic DNA, which is used in fresh cases and contains a human’s entire genetic data, because over time it would have become fragmented.

But he explained it would be possible to use mitochondrial DNA instead. It is passed down exclusively through the female line, is much more abundant than genomic DNA, and survives far better.

This meant that in order to give us something to test against, I had to trace a direct descendant through the female line of Catherine Eddowes. Luckily, a woman named Karen Miller, the three-times great-granddaughter of Eddowes, had featured in a documentary about the Ripper’s victims, and agreed to provide a sample of her DNA.

Jari managed to get six complete DNA profiles from the shawl, and when he tested them against Karen’s they were a perfect match.

It was an amazing breakthrough. We now knew that the shawl was authentic, and was at the scene of the crime in September 1888, and had the victim’s blood on it. On its own, this made it the single most important artefact in Ripper history: nothing else has ever been linked scientifically to the scene of any of the crimes.

Months of research on the shawl, including analysing the dyes used, had proved that it was made in Eastern Europe in the early 19th Century. Now it was time to attempt to prove that it contained the killer’s DNA.

jack the  ripper suspect.jpg


The suspects: The long line of men believed to be Jack the Ripper include, from left to right, Prince Albert Victor, Edward VII's son, allegedly driven by syphilis-induced madness, Queen Victoria's doctor, a Jewish shoemaker

The suspects: The long line of men believed to be Jack the Ripper include, from top left to right, Prince Albert Victor, Edward VII’s son, allegedly driven by syphilis-induced madness, Sir William Gull, Queen Victoria’s doctor, painter Walter Sickert, a Jewish shoemaker, a polish barber who later poisoned three women – and Kosminski

Jari used the same extraction method on the semen traces on the shawl, warning that the likelihood of sperm lasting all that time was very slim. He enlisted the help of Dr David Miller, a world expert on the subject, and in 2012 they made another incredible breakthrough when they found surviving cells. They were from the epithelium, a type of tissue which coats organs. In this case, it was likely to have come from the urethra during ejaculation.

Kosminski was 23 when the murders took place, and living with his two brothers and a sister in Greenfield Street, just 200 yards from where the third victim, Elizabeth Stride, was killed. As a key suspect, his life story has long been known, but I also researched his family. Eventually, we tracked down a young woman whose identity I am protecting – a British descendant of Kosminski’s sister, Matilda, who would share his mitochondrial DNA. She provided me with swabs from the inside of her mouth.

Amplifying and sequencing the DNA from the cells found on the shawl took months of painstaking, innovative work. By that point, my excitement had reached fever-pitch. And when the email finally arrived telling me Jari had found a perfect match, I was overwhelmed. Seven years after I bought the shawl, we had nailed Aaron Kosminski.

As a scientist, Jari is naturally  cautious, unwilling to let his imagination run away without testing every minute element, but even he declared the finding ‘one hell of a masterpiece’. I celebrated by visiting the East End, wandering the streets where Kosminski lived, worked and committed his despicable crimes, feeling a sense of euphoria but also disbelief that we had unmasked the Ripper.

Kosminski was not a member of the Royal Family, or an eminent  surgeon or politician. Serial killers rarely are. Instead, he was a pathetic creature, a lunatic who achieved sexual satisfaction from slashing women to death in the most brutal manner. He died in Leavesden  Asylum from gangrene at the age of 53, weighing just 7st.

No doubt a slew of books and films will now emerge to speculate on his personality and motivation. I have  no wish to do so. I wanted to provide real answers using scientific evidence, and I’m overwhelmed that 126 years on, I have solved the mystery.

Shawl that nailed Polish lunatic Aaron Kosminski and the forensic expert that made the critical match


Evidence: Russell points to the part of the shawl where DNA was found


Evidence: Russell points to the part of the shawl where DNA was found

When Russell Edwards first approached me in 2011, I wasn’t aware of the massive levels of interest in the Ripper case, as I’m a scientist originally from Finland.

But by early this year, when I realised we were on the verge of making a big discovery, working on the shawl had taken over my life, occupying me from early in the morning until late at night.

It has taken a great deal of hard work, using cutting-edge scientific techniques which would not have been possible five years ago.

To extract DNA samples from the stains on the shawl, I used a technique I developed myself, which I call ‘vacuuming’ – to pull the original genetic material  from the depths of the cloth.

I filled a sterile pipette with a  liquid ‘buffer’, a solution known to stabilise the cells and DNA, and injected it into the cloth to dissolve the material trapped in the weave of the fabric without damaging  the cells, then sucked it out.

I needed to sequence the DNA found in the stains on the shawl, which means mapping the DNA by determining the exact order  of the bases in a strand. I used polymerase chain reaction, a technique which allows millions  of exact copies of the DNA to be made, enough for sequencing.

When I tested the resulting  DNA profiles against the DNA taken from swabs from Catherine Eddowes’s descendant, they were a match.

I used the same extraction method on the stains which had characteristics of seminal fluid.

Dr David Miller found epithelial cells – which line cavities and organs – much to our surprise, as we were not expecting to find anything usable after 126 years.

Then I used a new process called whole genome amplification to copy the DNA 500 million-fold and allow it to be profiled.

Once I had the profile, I could compare it to that of the female descendant of Kosminski’s sister, who had given us a sample of  her DNA swabbed from inside  her mouth.

The first strand of DNA showed a 99.2 per cent match, as the analysis instrument could not determine the sequence of the missing 0.8 per cent fragment  of DNA. On testing the second strand, we achieved a perfect  100 per cent match.

Because of the genome amplification technique, I was also able to ascertain the ethnic and geographical background of the DNA I extracted. It was of a type known as the haplogroup T1a1, common in people of Russian Jewish ethnicity. I was even able to establish that he had dark hair.

Now that it’s over, I’m excited and proud of what we’ve achieved, and satisfied that we have established, as far as we possibly can, that Aaron Kosminski is  the culprit.

Dr Jari Louhelainen is a senior lecturer in molecular biology at Liverpool John Moores University and an expert in historic cold-case forensic research.



Is this the end of the humble tea bag?


LAS VEGAS, Nev. (March 21, 2013) — World Tea Expo, the most prominent annual event for the tea industry, is awarding the 2013 Best New Product Award for Innovation to Bkon’s Bkon TX. The groundbreaking technology features Reverse Atmospheric Infusion process, which changes the pressure around the tea so the natural extraction process occurs in less than 90 seconds with more purity. The new technology – on the same playing field as an espresso machine in the coffee industry – allows every loose-leaf tea varietal to be delivered to consumers in a consistent manner with unmatched cup quality. Bkon, a developer of pioneering beverage technologies, will exhibit and unveil the product at World Tea Expo, June 7 – 9 in Las Vegas.

George Jage, founder and director, World Tea Expo, says, “The Bkon TX is the most thrilling tea technology we’ve seen in quite some time. It’s certainly a disruptive machine that finally brings the tea industry on par with the coffee industry and coffeehouses, in terms of routinely serving superior consistent-tasting drinks in a timely fashion.

According to Dean Vastardis, Bkon co-founder, Bkon’s patented Reverse Atmospheric Infusion process infuses beverages through controlled negative pressure. “Other brewing methods and devices pull or push water through the tea,” he says. “Reverse Atmospheric Infusion actually changes the air pressure, so the soluble flavor elements and natural sugars are extracted more completely and with greater purity.”

Bkon’s Reverse Atmospheric Infusion changes the physics of extraction by controlling negative atmospheric pressure during the infusion process. Gases are released from the pores of the tea to create a void for the water to infuse. The boiling temperature of the water is reduced to accelerate agitation at a molecular level. This process targets and extracts optimal elements of the tea at key phases of the brew cycle, producing a unique clean finish and full body mouth feel.
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